Vitamin A, aka Retinol, is one of the most well-researched actives used in skincare today. Retinol and all of its derivatives are broken down within the skin first into retinaldehyde, then into retinoic acid, the active form recognised by the body to trigger it’s skin benefits.
Retinoic acid (aka tretinoin) is the gold standard of anti-ageing and works in a number of ways. Firstly, it blocks the production of collagen-degrading enzymes, meaning collagen does not get broken down as quickly in the skin. After prolonged use (6M+), it has also been shown to stimulate the production of type I and type III collagen, reducing wrinkles and improving skin firmness. It has been shown to protect against UV-induced damage, as well as reducing the appearance of hyperpigmentation in the skin. Skin treated with retinoids is smoother, more even-toned, firmer and younger looking.