This is a fantastic multi-acid toner which combines AHA (alpha hydroxy acids), BHA (beta hydroxy acid) and PHA (poly hydroxy acids), along with niacinamide. This blend allows the product to function in a variety of ways to provide multiple benefits to the skin simultaneously.
The formula includes 4% lactic acid and 2% glycolic acid, both of which are AHAs. AHAs are small water soluble exfoliating acids which are great for exfoliating the top layer of skin to improve texture and radiance. Due to their small size, they can work very quickly so results are almost immediate. Regular use encourages the production of new skin cells at the base of the epidermis (the living layer of the skin), accelerating the natural skin renewal cycle. As this cycle slows with age, ingredients that can accelerate this process help support youthful-looking skin.
The toner also contains 2% salicylic acid, a BHA. This is an oil-soluble ingredient, meaning it can get right inside the pores to break down excess sebum and dead skin cells which can build up in the pores and lead to breakouts and blackheads. Salicylic acid is a natural anti-inflammatory (fun fact: it’s derived from the same plant as aspirin), so helps to calm inflamed blemishes and reduce redness. Regular use reduces congestion in the skin.
Gluconolactone 5% and lactobionic acid 0.25% are the PHAs in the formula. PHAs are water soluble and larger in size than AHAs. They work in a similar way to exfoliate the surface layer of the skin, but their size makes them a more gentle option. They also act as a natural humectant, which means they can draw water molecules towards them to hydrate and plump the area they are applied to.
Lastly, 2.5% niacinamide rounds off the formulation. This ingredient has a multitude of benefits. It can regulate the skin’s natural oil production, as well as strengthen the skin barrier by encouraging the production of natural skin lipids. It works to fade hyperpigmentation, is an anti-inflammatory and can also reduce redness in the skin.