This serum is quickly gaining cult status in the skincare arena. It is designed to treat hyperpigmentation and includes several ingredients to target different parts of the pathway which result in hyperpigmentation for maximum results.
In a nutshell, hyperpigmentation occurs through this (very simplified) mechanism. First, excess melanin is produced in the melanocyte (facilitated by the enzyme tyrosinase). Then, this excess melanin is transferred from the melanocyte to the skin cells, where it gradually moves up through the layers, eventually becoming visible on the surface of the skin. This process can take up to 10 years.
Alpha arbutin (derived from the bearberry plant) is a natural tyrosinase inhibitor, and included in the formula at 2%. Without tyrosinase, the production of excess melanin cannot take place, so ingredients that inhibit this enzyme are very effective at fading visible hyperpigmentation.
Kojic acid is another tyrosinase inhibitor and is included in this serum at 1%. It also acts as an antioxidant, which helps to protect the skin against damage from free radicals in the atmosphere.
Niacinamide works in a different way to reduce hyperpigmentation. It blocks the transfer of melanin from the melanocyte to the skin cells, to prevent it from becoming visible at the skin’s surface. It is included here at 1.5%.
The formula is bolstered by another two skin brightening ingredients; sodium ascorbyl phosphate 2% (a vitamin c derivative) and paper mulberry extract.